Multi-State Taxation

Multi-State Taxation

Navigating the complexities of multistate taxation can pose a challenge for employees whose work extends beyond the borders of their home state. Whether their professional endeavors entail daily cross-state commutes or engagements at multiple business locations across state lines, these individuals find themselves subject to taxation regulations determined by the jurisdiction in which they perform their duties. Multistate taxation income laws present unique nuances in each state, making it essential to identify the appropriate state for tax obligations to avoid potential fines or penalties.

Reciprocal Agreements

Reciprocal agreements are agreements between states regarding income earned by non-residents. Under these agreements, individuals only pay income tax in their home state and receive an exemption from tax withholding in the non-resident state that they work in.

Sixteen states along with the District of Columbia currently have reciprocal agreements, typically with states that surround them.

StateReciprocity States
ArizonaCalifornia, Indiana, Oregon, Virginia
IllinoisIowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Wisconsin
IndianaKentucky, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin
KentuckyIllinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin
MarylandPennsylvania, Virginia, Washington D.C., West Virginia
MichiganIllinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin
MinnesotaMichigan, North Dakota
MontanaNorth Dakota
New JerseyPennsylvania
North DakotaMinnesota, Montana

In cases where there is no reciprocity agreement between the resident state and the state where an individual works, there might be an obligation to pay taxes in both states. However, to mitigate the issue of double taxation, which is considered unconstitutional, the resident state typically provides a tax credit for the amount owed to the other state.

Convenience Rule 

The “convenience rule,” adopted by certain states including Connecticut, Delaware, Nebraska, New York, and Pennsylvania, is a tax regulation that empowers these states to impose income tax on earnings derived from work performed for an in-state employer. Notably, this tax obligation persists even if the employee chooses to work remotely from a different state.

Remote Work Under the Convenience Rule 

Under the convenience rule, the determining factor for taxation is the employer’s location rather than the employee’s physical work location. This means that if you are employed by a company based in one of these states, your income is subject to state income tax in that jurisdiction, regardless of where you physically carry out your job duties.

For instance, if you reside in New Jersey but work remotely for a New York-based employer, New York’s convenience rule would enable the state to tax the income you earn, as it is based on the location of your employer.

Mitigation of the Convenience Rule

To alleviate the potential burden of double taxation resulting from both the resident state and the nonresident state levying taxes on the same income, the state of residence often provides a tax credit. This credit offsets the taxes paid to the nonresident state. However, the availability and extent of this credit can vary based on the specific circumstances and tax laws of each state.

For individuals navigating these complexities, seeking guidance from a tax professional and consulting each state’s instruction booklet can be instrumental in ensuring compliance and optimizing their tax positions.

If you have questions regarding multi-state taxation or need assistance filing, we have CPAs who are available and ready to assist you.

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2024-01-24T16:47:17+00:00January 24th, 2024|Business, Tax|

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